The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Pathology is a subspecialty in the field of medicine which deals with the study of diseases. The word Pathology derives its origin from the Greek words “Pathos” meaning “disease” and “Logos” meaning “study”. A pathological condition is the one that is caused by a disease, rather than occurring physiologically. Pathology includes the cause, epidemiology, pathogenesis, morphogenesis, and manifestations of the disease; the main role of a pathologist is the prognosis, diagnosis, treatment of the disease and patient care using novel techniques. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, genetic diseases ( hereditary and non-hereditary), and physiological diseases. Pathology is a vast field and there are many branches such as Anatomical Pathology, Clinical Pathology, Psycho Pathology, Molecular Pathology and many more. Advancements in techniques used in the Pathological treatment of diseases is rapidly increasing and this field has a vast scope for development.
- Track 1-1 History of Pathology
- Track 1-2 Classification of Diseases
- Track 1-3 Branches of Pathology
- Track 1-4 Etiology, Pathogenesis and Morphogeneis of Disease
- Track 1-5 Techniques used in Pathology
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology which involves the study and diagnosis of diseases at the cellular level using a light microscope. It is a diagnostic technique which is used to examine the individual cells, extracted from the tissues to find the cause and nature of the disease. It also involves a morphologic study of the normal and abnormal exfoliated cells in the fluids. The first developed cytopathology test was the Pap test which has been used in the last 50 years for screening and diagnosing cervical cancer and its precursors. This test was the most successful screening test in the medical history. After the development of the Pap test, the practice of cytopathology expanded to include samples from all body sites.
- Track 2-1Role of Cytopathology
- Track 2-2Natural Spontaneous Exfoliation
- Track 2-3Exudates and Transudate
- Track 2-4Artificial enhanced exfoliation
Immunopathology is a branch of medicine which deals with immune responses associated with the disease. It also includes the study of an organ or organ system with respect to the immune system. It refers to the damage caused to an organism by its own immune response, because of infection. Immune reactions are evolved as a mechanism for defense against infectious organisms. Patients who are unable to mount a specific immune response to infections are vigorously treated. The immune reactions have protective functions which are required to sustain life in the environmental pathogens is provided by diseases in which the immune system is compromised, the so-called immune deficiency diseases.
- Track 3-1Biology of Immune system
- Track 3-2Hypersensitivity reactions
- Track 3-3Autoimmunity and Autoimmune disease
- Track 3-4Immunodeficiency
- Track 3-5Immunoprophylaxis
Psycho Pathology originates from the Greek words “psyche” meaning “soul”; “pathos” meaning “suffering” and “logos” meaning “study”. It is the study of abnormal behavioral which manifests the indication of a mental disorder. Diagnosing a mental disorder involves Deviance which means diverging from normal behavior which violates the social norms; Distress is having a negative feeling against one’s self, Dysfunction is the inability to perform daily functions which affect the lifestyle and Danger imply a change in behavioral nature which indicates mental illness. Four kinds of approaches are being analyzed which includes the biological, behavioral, psychodynamic and cognitive approach. There are numerous disorders related to mental health which are being studied to know the causes and find a better prevention of such abnormalities.
- Track 4-1 Classification of Psychological disorders
- Track 4-2 Therapies for Psychopathy
- Track 4-3 Theories of Psychology
- Track 4-4 The Mind of a Psychopath
Cyber Pathology is the study of internet addicts who are deeply lured and obsessed with the internet. Cyber victims fall prey to Online gambling, online auctions and computer games. Affected individuals become cyber addicts who have a heightened level of anxiety, they become potential computer hackers and a threat to undisclosed information and trade secrets. Cyber Sex Addiction is a form of virtual internet sexual activity that has serious negative consequences. Cyber Security is the protection of computer hard wares and soft wares from potential thefts and damage. The globally interconnected network of technology called Cyberspace has rapidly increased over the years and has become an essential part of mankind. A set of rules and ethics called Cyber Ethics should be followed to respect the dignity of every individual who accesses the internet. Protection of laboratory data is critical and there are more ransomware attacks using patient data which is one of the major threats to the Healthcare industry.
- Track 5-1 Cyber Criminology
- Track 5-2 Cyber Victimization and Bullying
- Track 5-3 Cyber Sex Addiction
- Track 5-4 Online Gambling
- Track 5-5 Cybergenic Stress Syndrome
- Track 5-6 Privacy and Security of Patient Data in Laboratories
Dermatopathology is the study of cutaneous diseases. It is characterized by lesions and the alterations of the skin. It involves studying the causes of skin, hair and nail disorders at the cellular level. Dermatopathology cases may include Melanoma, immunologic, infectious, pediatric diseases and other skin disorders. Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of dermatology and surgical pathology. It studies all the cutaneous lesions. Some lesions are due to inflammation of the skin, some are malformations, and some are tumors. There are certain tests that fall under the category of dermatopathology, they are, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Electron microscopy, Flow cytometry, and Molecular-pathologic analysis.
- Track 6-1Common inflammatory skin diseases
- Track 6-2Dermo-epidermal junction
- Track 6-3Sweat Gland Carcinoma
- Track 6-4Melanoma
The term implies the abnormal use and intake of drugs which leads to drug addiction. Recurrent usage of drugs affects the brain psychically and as well as normal health, which in turn has an effect on the social life of the individual. Drugs are categorized into seven types namely: Stimulants, Depressants, Hallucinogens, Dissociatives, Opioids, Inhalants, and Cannabis. There are numerous drug addictions such as Alcoholism; Cocaine, Opioid, Amphetamine Use Disorders. Diagnosis is done with the help of medical reports, psychological assessment, physical examination and from concerned ones. Treatment involves detoxification which includes withdrawal from the drugs and stability effects; and psychological motivation to maintain abstinence from the intake of drugs. It is the individual’s mind to have a proper decision making towards good or bad and this has an impact on one’s well being. Addicts having a powerful mind can make a step to restrict themselves from drug usage.
- Track 7-1 Overview on Drugs
- Track 7-2 Types of Drug Addicts
- Track 7-3 Advances in Drug Addiction Treatment
- Track 7-4 Effect on Drugs On Mental and Physical Health
- Track 7-5 Legislation on Drug Use
Malnutrition or abnormal dietary intake which leads to disease is a term which applies to Nutrition Pathology. Our body exposes numerous toxins through the environment and food and hence it is necessary to flush out these pathogenic toxins by the xenobiotic metabolism. Nutritional deficiencies have decreased over the past decade giving importance to the dietary needs and requirements. Malnutrition is of two types namely: Under Nutrition and Over Nutrition. Poor diet, eating disorders, lack of awareness, obesity, and certain diseases are the main causes of nutritional deficiencies. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of values used to plan a healthy diet which includes Estimated Average Requirements, Recommended Dietary Allowances, Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Medical Nutrition Therapy is a therapeutic approach to treat certain diseased conditions, and it is mainly effective in treating Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. This therapy is recommended within international professional guidelines.
- Track 8-1 Types of Nutritional Disorders
- Track 8-2 Causes of Nutritional Diorders
- Track 8-3 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
- Track 8-4 Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT)
Radiation Pathology is a term which refers to the study of human tissues exposed to harmful ionizing radiations. Ionizing radiation can either mutate or genetically deform the cells and organs which can lead to various illnesses and diseases due to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Radiation therapy for cancer has side effects associated with them. The damage to the tissues caused by exposure to ionizing radiations is called Radiation Injury. Recently, therapies, where a patient’s own stem cells are being used to regenerate tissues, are considered since the procedure is easy. Radio Protectors, Surgical Treatment and Mitigators are also considered as options for treating radiation injury. The radiation dose for treatment of various diseases and cancer should be carefully considered and managed to prevent injury.
- Track 9-1 Types of Radiation
- Track 9-2 Radiation Toxicity and Implications
- Track 9-3 Radiation Esophagitis
- Track 9-4 Advances in the treatment of Radiation Injury
Bone Pathology is a sub-specialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases. The various types of bone disorders include osteoporosis, osteopenia, and osteomalacia. Bone pathologies include bone cancer, osteomyelitis, and bone cysts. Metastatic Bone Disease occurs due to the interaction between the tumor cells and bone cells and leads to disruption of bone metabolism. A Pathologic fracture is caused by diseases which leads to bone weakness. X-ray Radiography and CT Scan are valuable medical tests to determine the extent of the bone fracture. Radiotherapy and Cytotoxic Treatments are done in the treatment of advanced cancers. Getting advice from a physiotherapist on restorative exercise pattern orthotic aids, diet, and fluid intake can reduce the risk of dislocation of bones and joints in athletes.
- Track 10-1 Types of Bone Diseases
- Track 10-2 Tumoral and Non-Tumoral Abnormalities
- Track 10-3 Bone Marrow Biopsy
- Track 10-4 Freeze Dried Bone Allografts
Hemato Pathology is medical sub-specialty which deals with the study of diseased hematopoietic cells. The term Hematopoiesis means the creation of new blood cells. Clot formation that is pathological due to excessive hemostasis is called Thrombosis. Hemostasis is the absence of bleeding which causes the blood to clot in the damaged vessel or artery itself. Researchers are working isolating stem cells having functioning factors for treating individuals with Hemophilia, which is an inherited blood disorder where the patient’s ability of the body to clot blood is severely reduced. Blood cell disorders like Anemia, Myeloma, Thrombocytosis, Thalassemia are common. Some types of blood disorders are cancerous while others are non-cancerous. HSC transplantation is currently an active area of research to regenerate blood cells without defects and abnormalities. Transfusion Medicine is a branch of clinical pathology which deals with the transfusion of blood and blood products. Hematopathology is an area of active research and scientists are working to find solutions to rare blood disorders.
- Track 11-1 Blood Cell Diseases
- Track 11-2 Research on Hemophilia
- Track 11-3 Hemostasis and Thrombosis
- Track 11-4 HSC Transplantation
- Track 11-5 Transfusion Medicine
The stage of Embryo development during which there is abnormal expression, migration, differentiation, and necrosis of the Neural Crest Cells (NCC’s) neurological disorders. Neural Crest Cells arise from the developing embryo of vertebrates and is called the Fourth germ layer. There are four categories of Neural Crest: Trunk Neural Crest (tNCC), Cardiac Neural Crest (carNCC), Cranial Neural Crest (cNCC), and Sacral and Vagal Neural Crest. Some notable disorders of neural crest include Albinism, Neuroblastoma, Melanoma, Di George Syndrome and Hirschsprung Disease. Various disorders of thyroid, ear, skin, heart, craniofacial and digestive system are attributed to the malformation of a proper neural crest. Neuroblastoma can be treated by surgical resection. Folate deficiencies during the conception period can lead to congenital abnormalities and; hence it is recommended to have sufficient intake of folate in food. Craniofacial defects are congenital with abnormalities in the growth of facial and skull bones. Researches are active in this area using rDNA technology to find a cure for patients with Craniofacial defects.
- Track 12-1 Neuroblastoma
- Track 12-2 Neural Crest Development( Embryology)
- Track 12-3 Abnormalities of Nervous System
- Track 12-4 Craniofacial Defects
Plant pathology is the study of the environmental conditions that cause diseases in plants, the interactions between the infectious agents and the plant and the methods of managing plant diseases. The study includes a wide range of categories such as plant viruses, fungi, bacteria, nematodes, protozoa, parasitic plants, viroid, and oomycetes. Globally, enormous losses of crops are caused by the plant diseases. The loss can be from the time of seed sowing in the field until harvesting and storage. It deals with the cause, etiology, resulting losses and the management of the plant diseases. It comprises with the basic knowledge and technologies of botany, plant anatomy, plant physiology, mycology, Bacteriology, Horticulture, Tissue culture, Soil science and other branches of applied science.
- Track 13-1Infectious Organism that causes disease
- Track 13-2Plant disease management
- Track 13-3Fundamental principles of Plant pathology
- Track 13-4Classification of Plant diseases
Gynecologic Pathology is a medical sub-specialty which deals with the study and diagnosis of diseases involving the female genital tract. Gynecology originates from the Greek words “Gyno” meaning “woman” and “logos” meaning “study”. Medical or surgical therapies are considered for treatment of diseases involving the female reproductive system. A gynecologist performs operations such as Hysterectomy, Tubal Ligation, and Oophorectomy. Gynecologic cancer is cancer in the ovary, uterus, vagina, vulva or cervix; extensive training is given to the specialists for the diagnosis and treatment. Obstetrics deals with the care of pregnant women throughout the course of pregnancy and childbirth. Both these fields related to female health with advancements are proving to be more effective and a ray of hope to all the women.
- Track 14-1 Gynaecologic diseases and disorders
- Track 14-2 Overview on PCOS
- Track 14-3 Obstetric Surgery
- Track 14-4 Ovarian Tumor
- Track 14-5 Endometrial Cancer Care
Breast Pathology includes diseases which may be cancerous or non-cancerous. A manifestation of Breast Cancer means losing the breast for life and hence for many women breast cancer is their worst fear. Neoplasm is the abnormal mass of tissue in the breast. Common Breast problems include breast pain, breast lumps, cysts, nipple discharge and changes in breast skin. Benign breast cancer can be treated without surgery with the use of Mammography, Ultrasound, Breast MRI and Needle Biopsies. A surgical oncologist who is specialized in treating various types of cancer can diagnose and perform surgery to treat breast cancer. Changing one’s lifestyle habits and limiting the dose of hormone therapy will prove to be effective in reducing the risk of breast cancer and other breast diseases.
- Track 15-1 Breast Carcinoma
- Track 15-2 Abnormal Nipple Discharge
- Track 15-3 Mammary Gland Carcinoma
- Track 15-4 Prevention of Breast Diseases
Cardio Pathology refers to any disease of the Heart. Major Heart Disorders include Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), Coronary Vascular Disease(CVD), Coronary Muscular Disease(Cardiomyopathy) and Arrhythmia. Heart Failure is a pathophysiologic state where the heart fails to pump blood in accordance with the requirement of metabolizing the tissues. To maintain the pumping of the heart in such cases, compensatory mechanisms which increase cardiac muscle mass and blood volume are employed. Imaging techniques such as ECG and chest radiography are carried out to know the extent of diseased condition of the heart. Treatment to manage and cure heart diseases include Pharmacologic and Non- Pharmacologic Therapies and even surgical treatment options are available. A key to maintaining a healthy heart is to keep blood pressure and cholesterol levels under control and following good lifestyle habits.
- Track 16-1 Coronary Artery Disease(CAD)
- Track 16-2 Coronary Vascular Disease(CVD)
- Track 16-3 Cardiomyopathy
- Track 16-4 Congenital Heart Defects
- Track 16-5 Arrhythmia
Ophthalmic Pathology is a sub-specialty of surgical pathology which deals with the study of neoplastic and non-neoplastic eye diseases. There are several kinds of diseases that affect the eyes namely night blindness, conjunctivitis, cataract, glaucoma etc. Eye disorders include Myopia, Hypermetropia, Presbyopia, and Astigmatism. An Ophthalmologist is a doctor who is specialized in eye and vision care. An Optometrist has a degree in optometry and prescribes contact lenses. Both can diagnose and treat certain eye conditions and prescribe medications. One main difference between them is that an Ophthalmologist is specialized to perform an eye surgery whereas an optometrist is not. Laser in-situ keratomileusis is a trending eye surgery that corrects the corneal region of the eye; performed on individuals with nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. Following a proper diet with extra nutrition for the eyes and performing certain eye exercises will improve the eye vision.
- Track 17-1 Ocular Cancer
- Track 17-2 Eye Microsurgery
- Track 17-3 Vision Rehabilitation
- Track 17-4 Optometry
- Track 17-5 Molecular Techniques in Ocular Pathology
Cerebro-Vascular Pathology is the disorders that affect the brain and leads to unconsciousness or altered consciousness. The state of Coma occurs when the human brain is no longer alert due to brain injury, brain cancer, stroke, epilepsy, cerebral palsy or brain infections. Traumatic Brain Injury occurs when some external force injures the brain and leads to intracranial injury and causes severe brain trauma. Brian function is either permanently or temporarily impaired in such cases. Hematoma, focal lesions, and cerebral laceration are some of the notable pathologies of the brain following a traumatic brain injury. Studies on Brain hemodynamics currently include developing models to relate neural activity to the amount of blood and oxygen flow to the brain tissues and thus developing improved technologies such as Brain Oxygenation Dependent MRI and other networks. Imaging biomarkers are available for Alzheimer’s Disease which assess the pathologies of certain accumulated toxic or mutated bio-products in the brain.
- Track 18-1 Overview on Brain Hemorrhage
- Track 18-2 Traumatic Brain Injury
- Track 18-3 Hemodynamics of Brain
- Track 18-4 Imaging Markers of CVP
Nephro pathology is a medical sub-specialty of pathology which deals with the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of renal diseases. Pathologic features of diseased kidneys include loss of renal cells, fibrosis, proteinuria, and hypoxia. Nephrosis is a common type of kidney disease characterized by non-inflamed kidneys whereas Nephritis is characterized by inflamed kidneys. There are several causes of kidney failure such as increased use of analgesics, diabetes, diet, and toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Implantable artificial kidney transplants are done to restore the normal functioning of the kidney which is a better alternative to Dialysis. A renal dietitian monitors the dietary intake of the patients to manage toxin and water control. Smoking and alcohol should be avoided to prevent renal diseases. A healthy diet with high fibrous content should be followed to maintain the health of kidneys.
- Track 19-1 Therapeutical Drugs for Kidney disorders
- Track 19-2 Surgical Treatment of Renal Failure
- Track 19-3 Implantable Artificial Kidney
- Track 19-4 Advances in Treatment of Kidney Diseases
Clinical Chemistry is a sub-field in Laboratory Medicine which deals with the analysis of body fluids for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Clinical diagnostic tests help to assess a person’s overall health. Clinical Pathology involves testing blood and body fluids, and examination of individual cells and tissues at the microscopic level to diagnose a disease. Diagnostic Bio-markers are used to detect them and identify the manifestation of a disease and also help in diagnosis, drug target identification and response. There are several disease and drug-related bio-markers available. The quality and safety of drugs and laboratory medicines should be monitored for minimal side effects and effective treatment during the course of drug therapy. A flow cytometer is used to detect the presence of cancerous cells in the body by analyzing the bone marrow cells or blood cells and determining the WBC count. Clinical lab techniques prove to be a necessity for understanding the pathological condition of a disease in patients.
- Track 20-1 Clinical Diagnostic Tests
- Track 20-2 Diagnostic Bio markers
- Track 20-3 Drug Monitoring and Analysis
- Track 20-4 Quality and Safety of Lab Medicines
- Track 20-5 Flow Cytometry